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Cadmium Symbol:"Cd" Atomic Number:"48" Atomic Mass: 112.41amu. Cadmium is one of the transition elements. This bluish metal is actually very soft and can be cut with a knife. You will find it used in nickel-cadmium batteries, nuclear reactors, and as a pigment. It is toxic.

More Information: Transition Metals
Calcium Symbol:"Ca" Atomic Number:"20" Atomic Mass: 40.06amu. Member of the alkaline earth metals group. Calcium can be found in three percent of the Earth's crust, your bones and cells, and in the shells of ocean creatures.

More Information: Calcium
Californium Symbol:"Cf" Atomic Number:"98" Atomic Mass: (251)amu. Californium is one of the elements in the actinide series of inner transition elements. It may also be classified as a rare earth element. It is a very radioactive element and you might find it used in medicine.

More Information: Actinide Series
Calorie A calorie is a unit scientific measure for heat and energy. You have probably heard of calories in your food. Scientists measure one calorie as the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of water (one gram of water) one degree Celsius.

More Information: Thermo-dynamics
Carbon Symbol:"C" Atomic Number:"6" Atomic Mass: 12.01amu. Carbon is one of the most important elements on Earth. It is classified as a non-metal and found in rocks, plants, and animals. You will find carbon all over the planet including gasoline, charcoal, diamonds, and plastics.

More Information: Carbon
Carbonate Mineral A mineral that is made up of compounds with a carbonate group bonded to a metal. Calcite is a good example of a carbonate mineral.

More Information: Solids
Carboxyl Group Carboxyl groups are chemical functional groups with one carbon, one hydrogen, and two oxygen atoms (COOH). You will find these on many of the amino acids. It also makes molecules that are considered weak carboxylic acids. It is also defined as a polyatomic ion.

More Information: Ions
Catalyst A catalyst is a compound or element that can increase the rate of a chemical reaction. Catalysts can lower activation energy of a reaction to help a reaction proceed faster and with less energy.

More Information: Enzymes
Cellulose A polysaccharide (carbohydrate) found in plants. It is a structural carbohydrate that is an important part of the cell walls. It protects and strengthens the plant. It is a long chain of glucose molecules connected by a different type of glycosidic bond than the one found in starches.

More Information: Carbohydrates
Cerium Symbol:"Ce" Atomic Number:"58" Atomic Mass: 140.12amu. Cerium is one of the elements in the lanthanide series of inner transition elements. It may also be classified as a rare earth element. You can find this silvery colored metal in air conditioners, your computer, and even the oven.

More Information: Lanthanide Series
Cesium Symbol:"Cs" Atomic Number:"55" Atomic Mass: 132.91amu. One of the alkali metal group. This element can be found in many minerals. When pure it is a silvery-white color and is used in atomic clocks and photoelectric cells. It is one of three metals found in a liquid state at room temperature.

More Information: Alkali Metals
Charles' Law A scientist named Jacques Charles did many experiments involving gas volumes and temperatures. He determined that the volume a gas needs is directly proportional to the temperature of the system (assuming a constant pressure). The formula goes: V=Tk (where k is a constant).

More Information: Gases
Chemical Combination A chemical reaction in which two elements or compounds are combined to form a more complex compound.

More Information: Compounds
Chemical Decomposition This is the molecular action of the larger process of decomposition. Compounds are broken down into simpler compounds and elements.

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Chemical Replacement A chemical reaction where one element is replaced by another. Copper and sulfuric acid combine to create copper sulfate and hydrogen.

More Information: Compounds
Chemical Forces Chemical forces act on the bonds of molecules and atoms. They change the chemical makeup of systems. Physical forces are different from chemical forces in that they do not change the chemical makeup of molecules.

More Information: Compounds
Chlorine Symbol:"Cl" Atomic Number:"17" Atomic Mass: 35.45amu. Chlorine is a green/yellow gas with a very bad smell. It is very reactive and combines with many elements. It is a member of the halogen group. You can find chlorine in bleaches, papermaking, swimming pools, tap water, and table salt.

More Information: Chlorine
Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is the pigment in plants that absorbs light rays. The organic compound found in plants that captures the energy from the sun and releases the energy to form chemical bonds. The capture of light is the first step of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants and there are many different types of the compound. Chlorophyll has many forms and gives plants their green color. The key element in chlorophyll is magnesium (Mg).

More Information: Magnesium
Chromium Symbol:"Cr" Atomic Number:"24" Atomic Mass: 52.00amu. Chromium is one of the transition elements. You can find chromium in rubies and other minerals, in utensils, and in the process of making chrome parts for cars and motorcycles.

More Information: Chromium
Cobalt Symbol:"Co" Atomic Number:"27" Atomic Mass: 58.93amu. Cobalt is one of the transition elements. You can find cobalt in magnets, stainless steel, pottery, and Vitamin B-12.

More Information: Cobalt
Cohesion Cohesive forces of attraction happen between molecules of the same type. Two water droplets that are close to each other will combine into one because of cohesive forces.

More Information: Compounds
Color Color is a measure of reflected wavelengths of light. Colors are also only useful to organisms that can see with the visible spectrum of light. An element like gold may have a yellow color while mercury will be highly reflective and silvery (like silver color).

More Information: Solids
Combined Gas Law There came a time when scientists combined the ideas in Boyle's Law and Charles' Law. The result was the combined gas law that worked for pressure, temperature, and volume. The formula goes: (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2. From this formula you can determine the values of pressure, volume, or temperature when you know the values of one system and all but one of the values for a second system.

More Information: Gases
Compass A compass is a scientific instrument that tells the user the direction of magnetic north. South is directly opposite north, east is to the right, and west is to the left.

More Information: Iron
Composition Percentage This value tells the percentage of a solution that could be a percentage of mass or percentage by volume. It is determined by dividing the value for the solute by the value for the solution and then multiplying by 100 to get the percentage. Seven milliliters of HCl divided by 100 milliliters of water creates a 7 percent by volume solution.

More Information: Stoichiometry
Concentrated Solution A solution (liquid mixture) that has a large amount of solute dissolved. As you add more sugar to a glass of water, the sugar solution becomes more concentrated.

More Information: Liquids
Concentration Concentration is the amount of one substance in a system relative to the amount of other substances. If you have a glass of water, the concentration of water in the glass is 100%. A glass of salt water will have a specific concentration of salt in the water.

More Information: Liquids
Condensate A condensate is an example of moisture that has condensed. Condensate might be created during the process of distillation. When you boil water and it condenses on the lid of the pot, you have created a condensate.

More Information: BE Condensate
Condensation Point The condensation point is when a gas reaches a temperature to become a liquid. Energy is taken out of the atoms in the gas state and they condense, forming drops of liquid. You can also think of the point in nature when water vapor cools and forms small droplets, such as dew in the morning.

More Information: Liquids
Conjugate Acid A conjugate acid is a molecule that is created when you start with a base and add a proton.

More Information: Acids and Bases
Conjugate Base A conjugate base is a molecule that is created when you start with an acid and remove a proton.

More Information: Acids and Bases
Conservation of Matter Name of the concept that explains how mass cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.

More Information: Reactions
Contact Metamorphism Metamorphic rocks that have been formed in areas where volcanic activity has occurred. The heat from the lava directly heats the neighboring rocks and causes them to reform. There are more crystals in this type of metamorphic rock.

More Information: Solids
Copper Symbol:"Cu" Atomic Number:"29" Atomic Mass: 63.55amu. Copper is one of the transition elements. Copper is one of the most well known metals. Humans have used it for thousands of years. It is a reddish color and can be found alone or in many different minerals. You might find copper in pipes, coins, alloys, and electronics.

More Information: Copper
Covalence Covalence is the ability of an element to bond with other elements by sharing electrons across a bond. Covalent compounds can be made with single, double, and triple bonds. These bonds are not as easily broken in solution as electrovalent compounds. Two covalent bonds happen between carbon and two oxygen atoms in carbon dioxide.

More Information: Compounds
Covalent Bond A chemical bond where electrons are shared between two atoms. In this type of bond no ions are found. You can find covalent bonds in many compounds. You will find covalent bonds when carbon bonds to other elements.

More Information: Compounds
Critical Temperature A temperature beyond which a gas cannot be turned into a liquid no matter how much pressure is applied. The process of liquefaction cannot occur above the critical temperature.

More Information: Liquids
Critical Pressure Pressure needed to force a gas into a liquid state when the gas is at its critical temperature.

More Information: Gases
Crystal Cleavage Cleavage is the way a crystal breaks when it is fractured. A crystal usually breaks along points of molecular weakness leaving a smooth break between two surfaces. The fresh surface is not as smooth as the naturally occurring surfaces of the crystal. There are four types of cleavage: none, distinct, indistinct, and perfect. Diamond cutters hope for perfect cleavage when they cut diamonds.

More Information: Solids
Crystal Fracture Crystals fracture in the same way anything would fracture. It is an uneven break. If you were to hit an ice cube with a hammer, it would fracture in an uneven manner.

More Information: Solids
Crystal Habit The general form a crystal takes. This is a larger formation than the actual shape of a crystal. While a crystal shape can be cubic, groups of crystals can form a shape that is bladed or prismatic.

More Information: Solids
Crystal Lattice A crystal lattice is a very exact organization of atoms that allows for a specific place for every molecule or atom in the solid. If a solid is made up of pure elements or compounds, it can create a very specific structure. A good example of a crystal lattice is a diamond. Salt (NaCl) has a specific cube shape for the crystal. One sodium atom connects to one chlorine atom and that combination repeats. The final structure is a cube.

More Information: Solids
Crystal Twinning Crystal twinning occurs when two crystals grow in different directions and eventually intersecting. There are two basic types: penetration and contact. Penetration twin crystals intersect. Contact twin crystals meet at a center point.

More Information: Solids
Crystalline Solid A crystalline solid has a specific organization of molecules and atoms. These are the classic crystals of the world such as diamonds and all gemstones. They are often made up of specific molecules and have very structured geometric shapes. These solids also have more clearly defined melting points. Table salt would be a good example of a crystalline solid.

More Information: Solids
Cubic Crystal A crystal shaped like a cube. A cube has six sides and might look like a die from a board game.

More Information: Solids
Curium Symbol:"Cm" Atomic Number:"96" Atomic Mass: (247)amu. Curium is one of the elements in the actinide series of inner transition elements. It may also be classified as a rare earth element. It is a very radioactive element but has been used in satellites and space exploration.

More Information: Actinide Series

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