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Salt When you mix an acid and a base, the ionic compounds dissociate. In solution, the H and OH ions combine to form water. The other two ions combine to create a salt. A good example of a salt is NaCl when it is formed by solutions of NaOH (base) and HCl (acid).

More Information: Compounds
Samarium Symbol:"Sm" Atomic Number:"62" Atomic Mass: 150.40amu. This is one of the elements in the lanthanide series of inner transition elements. It may also be classified as a rare earth element. This silvery metal has many uses in metallic alloys. You may find it in nuclear reactors and even audio equipment.

More Information: Lanthanide Series
Saturated A solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved in the solvent. As you dissolve sugar in a glass of water there will come a point when you can dissolve no more sugar. The solution has become saturated. Steam from a boiling pot of water can also saturate the surrounding air.

More Information: Solutions
Scandium Symbol:"Sc" Atomic Number:"21" Atomic Mass: 44.96amu. Scandium is one of the transition elements from the fourth period. Scandium can be found in stars, crystals of aquamarine, in other minerals, and has possible uses in spacecrafts of the future.

More Information: Transition Metals
Seaborgium Symbol:"Sg" Atomic Number:"106" Atomic Mass: (263)amu. This is one of the postactinide elements. Scientists have created these in labs and may have only found a few atoms of the element. You will not find these in use anywhere.

More Information: Transition Metals
Sedimentary Rock A rock type that has been created by the deposit and compression of sediment. This type of rock is created over millions of years while igneous rock can be created overnight. Sandstone is a good example of a sedimentary rock. The three main types of rock are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

More Information: Solids
Selenium Symbol:"Se" Atomic Number:"34" Atomic Mass: 78.96amu. It is classified as a non-metal. Selenium is found in many forms. It may have red crystals or a grayish metal color. The element is used in solar cells, photocopiers, and it is a trace element in your diet. Too much selenium is poisonous.

More Information: Selenium
Shells A shell is the area around the center of an atom. The atom holds its electrons in these shells. There can be up to seven shells that hold 110 electrons. We're only going to look at the first 3 shells.

More Information: Atom Orbitals
SI System International System of Units. A system of measurement used in science. It includes the metric system and other measures. Standard units include the kilogram, liter, meter, and seconds.

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Silicate Mineral A mineral that is made up of compounds with a silicon oxide group or silicon atom bonded to a metal. Topaz is a good example of a silicate mineral.

More Information: Solids
Silicon Symbol:"Si" Atomic Number:"14" Atomic Mass: 28.09amu. Silicon is a delicate, non-metallic element. It is delicate because it is brittle. There is more silicon in the Earth's crust than any other element except oxygen. You will also find silicon in glass, pottery, computer chips, and bricks.

More Information: Silicon
Silver Symbol:"Ag" Atomic Number:"47" Atomic Mass: 107.87amu. It is one of the transition elements. Silver is one of man's precious metals and has been used for thousands of years. It has the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of any metal. You will find it used in photography, dentistry, electronics, mirrors, and explosives.

More Information: Transition Metals
Simple Elements These are elements in the periodic table that have only one shell that is missing electrons. These simple elements include many of the first 18 elements. Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen are examples of simple elements.

More Information: Periodic Table
Skeleton Equation A chemical equation that is not balanced, with an unequal number of atoms on each side of the reaction. You may start with a hydrogen molecule on one side of the equation (two atoms) and create a compound that has eight hydrogen atoms. Although the formulas are correct, the equation is not balanced.

More Information: Reactions
Sodium Symbol:"Na" Atomic Number:"11" Atomic Mass: 23.00amu. One of the alkali metal family. Sodium is a light, metallic element. It is very reactive and almost explodes if put in water. You will find sodium in salt, glass making, paper-making, salt, developing photos, and fertilizers.

More Information: Sodium
Solid One characteristic of a solid is that it might be hard. In the same way that a solid holds its shape, the atoms inside of a solid are not allowed to move around. The solid atoms and molecules are trapped in their places.

More Information: Solids
Solubility A measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a specific solvent. Solubility can change with changes in pressure and temperature. Water has specific solubility for sugar at room temperature. As water is heated, you may dissolve more sugar in the same amount of water. Its solubility has increased with the increase in temperature.

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Soluble Soluble is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. Not all solutes are soluble in all solvents. Sugar and salt are compounds that are soluble in water.

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Solute A solute is the substance to be dissolved. Sugar would be the solute when you are dissolving sugar in water.

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Specific Gravity The specific gravity is a comparison of the mass of a substance to the mass of water with the same volume. If you fill a cup with mercury, it has a greater mass than the same cup filled with water. Specific gravity is usually used to measure and compare the masses of liquids. Density is usually used to measure and compare the masses of solids.

More Information: Liquids
Standard Conditions Conditions used to complete formulas in chemistry. Standard conditions include atmosphere at sea level (760 torr) and the Kelvin value for the freezing point of water (273K).

More Information: Gases
Standard Pressure The pressure measured at sea level on the Earth. Pressure can change if weather changes but standard pressure is measured as 760 millimeters of mercury on a barometer (torr).

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Standard Solution This is a solution for which the scientist knows the concentration of solute and solvent.

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Starch A long chain of carbohydrates formed in plants. It is often used as a food supply because it is a poly-saccharide made of glucose units. You will see starches from wheat plants used everyday in pasta. Starch is originally created in plant cells.

More Information: Carbohydrates
States of Matter Matter comes in many forms, shapes, and sizes. The big ones you should remember are solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas. Nearly all matter can be found in these four basic forms.

More Information: States of Matter
Steroid Steroids are lipids that are based on the cholesterol molecule. Steroids have three six-carbon rings, one five-carbon ring, and a side chain of some type. They are often used as hormones in organisms. Some steroids you may know are cholesterol, progesterone, or testosterone.

More Information: Lipids
Strong Electrolyte A strong electrolyte is compound that ionizes one hundred percent in solution. Strong acids, bases, and salts are all strong electrolytes.

More Information: Acids and Bases
Strontium Symbol:"Sr" Atomic Number:"38" Atomic Mass: 87.62amu. This element is a member of the alkaline metals family. Strontium is grouped with other barium-like minerals. It is reactive and oxidizes quickly, becoming a yellowish color. You may find it in magnets, TV tubes, and nuclear reactors.

More Information: Alkaline Metals
Subgroup These are columns of transition and inner transition elements. They have electron similarities for the outer two or three electron orbitals.

More Information: Periodic Table
Sulfate Mineral A mineral that is made up of compounds with a sulfate group bonded to a metal. Copper sulfate is a good example of a sulfate mineral. It is also known as chalcanthite.

More Information: Solids
Sulfide Mineral A mineral that is made of compounds with a sulfur atom bonded to a metal. Iron pyrite is a good example of a sulfide mineral with one iron atom bonded to two sulfur atoms.

More Information: Solids
Sulfur Symbol:"S" Atomic Number:"16" Atomic Mass: 32.06amu. Sulfur is a non-reactive element and is classified as a non-metal. It is found in large amounts all over the Earth and is usually yellow. It is also spelled "sulphur." You'll also find sulfur in fertilizers, medicine, fireworks, and matches. There are also many minerals called sulfides and sulfates in which sulfur appears.

More Information: Sulfur
Supersaturated A solution that has more solute dissolved than is possible under normal circumstances. If you heat a glass of water that is saturated you can add more sugar to the solution. When that solution cools to the original temperature, it is considered super-saturated.

More Information: Solutions
Synthesis When you take two elements or compounds and combine them to create a new compound.

More Information: Bonding






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